Human Rights Watch 2015 Report
"beatings with plastic pipes, electric cables, sticks & fists, suspended from doors or ceilings for hours & given electric shocks"
"incarceration of thousands of detainees who are being denied their basic rights for four years and counting"
Children detainees as young as 14 years old are subjected to torture and other ill-treatment.
Human Rights Watch 2015 Report
The displaced from Tawergha continued to seek safety and shelter in makeshift camps and private housing in many areas, but they remained subject to attack, harassment, and arbitrary detention by the militias.
Libyan authorities and militia commanders failed to end the attacks or hold those responsible to account.
The forced displacement of residents of Tawergha amounts to a crime against humanity.
International Criminal Court (ICC) 2014
The displacement of civilians from Tawergha in the period from August 2011 to April 2014 appears to meet the elements of deportation or forcible transfer of the civilian population as a crime against humanity under Article 7(1)(d) and as a war crime under Article 8(2)(e)(viii) of the Rome Statute.
Amnesty International Report 03 2014
Hundreds of Tawargha men and boys as young as 15 were arbitrarily detained and routinely tortured and
otherwise ill-treated. Many reportedly died under torture. Most displaced Tawargha live in poorly resourced
camps. The Libyan authorities have failed to end forcible displacement and protect the Tawargha from retaliatory
attacks, and perpetrators have not been brought to justice.
Human Rights Watch 2014 Report
Militias mainly from Misrata continued to arbitrarily detain, torture, harass, and kill Tawerghans in custody.
At time of writing, 1,300 people from Tawergha were detained, mainly in Misrata, or unaccounted for.
Since the end of the 2011 conflict, Human Rights Watch has documented repeated attacks, mostly by militias from Misrata, on people displaced from Tawergha living in makeshift camps in Tripoli and elsewhere.
Militias from Misrata have also arbitrarily arrested and harassed displaced Tawerghans, with impunity. The widespread and systematic nature of this ongoing forced displacement amounts to a crime against humanity.
Libya Amnesty International Annual Report 2013
Torture and other ill-treatment remained widespread, particularly in detention facilities controlled by militias, and were used to punish detainees and extract “confessions”. Detainees were especially vulnerable during arrest, in their first days of detention and during interrogation. Many signed “confessions” under torture or duress. Article 2 of Law 38 of 2012 gave legal weight to interrogation records of armed militias, at the discretion of judges.
Many detainees were subjected to sustained beatings with hoses, rifle butts, electric cables, water pipes or belts, often while suspended in contorted positions. Some were tortured with electric shocks, burned with cigarettes or heated metal, scalded with boiling water, threatened with murder or rape and subjected to mock execution. Tens of detainees died in the custody of militias, the SSC and in official prisons in circumstances suggesting that torture contributed to or caused their deaths.
The authorities took no real steps to facilitate the safe return to their homes of entire communities forcibly displaced during the 2011 conflict... Armed militias wrought further destruction in these areas to render them uninhabitable and arbitrarily detained and abused people from these communities, especially Tawarghas.
International Criminal Court (ICC) 2013
Prosecutor Statement 14 November
It is a matter of great concern that thousands of detainees remain in uncertain conditions in the country, with multiple and apparently well-founded allegations of torture and even killings in detention having been reported.
My Office fully shares the concerns of the United Nations that unless this problem is effectively addressed now, it will only escalate with time. It is incumbent upon the Ministers of Justice, Interior and Defence of the State of Libya to speedily ensure that detainees are transferred to proper government-controlled detention facilities where they can be either charged with their due process rights fully respected, or released where appropriate.
Torture and inhuman treatment of prisoners should have no place in the new Libya.
Equally disturbing are the simmering tensions regarding the Tawergha minority issue. These tensions and the prospects for reprisals have the potential to re-ignite violence in the country. It bears stressing that those who seek to defend the revolution and see to it that it succeeds, are at real risk of burying it if they do not take concrete and immediate steps on this issue.
Human Rights Watch Report 2013
Ethnic Cleansing Satellite Analysis
The Libyan government should take urgent steps to stop serious and ongoing human rights violations against inhabitants of the town of Tawergha. The forced displacement of roughly 40.000 people, arbitrary detentions, torture, and killings are widespread, systematic and sufficiently organized to be crimes against humanity.
HRW warns councils of Misrata 2012
You will be held criminally responsible
Human Rights Watch is writing to raise concerns about serious crimes that have been and continue to be committed by armed groups from Misrata, some of them amounting to crimes against humanity. As the civilian and military leadership in the city, we urge you to take immediate steps to halt the commission of these crimes, and to support prosecution of those responsible. We emphasize that senior officials, such as yourself, could be held criminally responsible for ordering these crimes, or for failing to prevent or punish them, by courts including the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague.
A serious matter is the crimes we have documented by Misratan militias against the people of Tawergha, including killings, torture, looting, home destruction and the ongoing forced displacement of some 30,000 people. Some officials from Misrata have publicly said that the people of Tawergha should never return.
United Nations Report 2012
Commission of Inquiry
The Commission further concluded that the thuwar committed serious violations, including war crimes and breaches of international human rights law, the latter continuing at the time of the present report. The Commission found these violations to include unlawful killing, arbitrary arrest, torture, enforced disappearance, indiscriminate attacks, and pillage. It found in particular that the thuwar are targeting the Tawergha and other communities.
UNSMIL press release 2013
Torture & Ill-treatment
The report indicates that torture is widespread and most frequent immediately after arrest and during the first days of interrogation to extract confessions and other information. The vast majority of the estimated 8,000 conflict-related detainees are also being held without due process.
UNHCR Report 2013
Some 59,425 persons face a
situation of protracted displacement. These include IDPs from Tawergha.
Asylum Research Consultancy 2013
Libya Country Report
An entire community is being held hostage to crimes allegedly committed by a few” and that “the onus is now on the government to end this collective punishment by ensuring that Tawerghans can exercise their right finally to return to their homes.
Amnesty International Report 2013 Scapegoats of Fear
Despite some governmental
demobilization and disarmament efforts, many militias, continue to commit serious human rights abuses with impunity, including arbitrary arrests and detention, torture and other ill-treatment and unlawful killings.
United States Government
Human Rights Report 2012
Militias in Misrata arbitrarily detained hundreds of Tawarghan IDPs, including women and children, and transferred them to detention in nearby Misrata, where human rights groups reported serious mistreatment and torture. Dark-skinned Libyans were particularly vulnerable to harassment and abuse by militia forces.
Amnesty International Report 2012 Rule of Law or rule of Militias
The new Libyan authorities must publicly acknowledge the scale and gravity of ongoing human rights violations, and condemn those carrying them out, without seeking to justify such actions.
MSF Report 2012
Torture in Misrata detention centres
MSF teams began working in Misrata’s detention centres in August, 2011, to treat war-wounded detainees. Since then, MSF doctors were increasingly confronted with patients who suffered injuries caused by torture during interrogation sessions. Since January, several of the patients returned to interrogation centres have even been tortured again. This is unacceptable. Our role is to provide medical care to war casualties and sick detainees, not to repeatedly treat the same patients between torture sessions.”
Amnesty International Reports
2011 - Now
Libya’s transition process has been marred by continued lawlessness and violence, including unlawful killings and other serious human rights abuses perpetrated with impunity by militias.